quarta-feira, 7 de janeiro de 2009

Cross-Culture Differences

Introduction
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Did you know?
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1) Japanese executives study American custom and business practices before doing business in the USA. Business etiquette in Japan is a $700 million a year industry.
2) A former United Nations Ambassador attributed the USA’s trade deficit to the fact that the captains of American industry had no idea how to deal with people who were different.
3) The first protocols were pieces of paper glued to documents by the ancient Greeks to register the author. The word came to mean the code for proper behavior in official dealings.
4) In France people attending a public ceremony used to be given a little ticket or etiquette, with instructions for how to behave during the ceremony.
5) Some Saudis wear two watches, one with Greenwich Mean Time and the other with Saudi Lunar Time.
6) The way people greet each other varies enormously around the world, from handshake, hugging or rubbing or placing hands in a praying position.
7) When taking their leave English people used to say Gob be with you, which over the years became goodbye.
8) Business cards were introduced in Britain in the eighteenth century. In Japan business cards should be exchanged with both hands.
9) In some countries a person position in the company hierarchy is reflected in the kind of car they drive. In the UK for example, the most important person may have a Rolls Royce, the next a Bentley and so on.
10) The habit of shaking hands may have been introduced by cave men. They would show that they were not hostile by dropping their club and offering their hand.
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Cultural awareness: an essential element for doing business abroad
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Learning the customs and culture of a foreign country "signals respect for the other side, and respect is important in developing a business relationship.”The fact that you haven't learned the history and the customs rises questions about the sincerity of how committed you are to doing business in the country."
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When traveling to other countries to transact business, Americans usually attempt to make a favorable impression and do their professional best. Unfortunately, behaviors, comments, time orientation, social practices, and etiquette that are considered appropriate professional behavior in corporate America may be perceived as arrogance, insensitivity, overconfidence, or aggressiveness in another culture. This could result in the American business person being perceived as insensitive to other cultures and jeopardize that person's working relationship with international counterparts.
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In the domestic market, Americans are comfortable in knowing what to do and how to do it. But to achieve the same objective and success with a minimum of interpersonal and professional errors abroad, advanced preparation is crucial. American corporations have a long way to go in developing executives to function abroad successfully. One retired senior vice president from a major U.S. corporation reports, "We have the technology and we know the business but we are not prepared as a country to deal with cultural differences....I have seen relatively little progress over the past 30 years."
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Recent literature cites an acknowledgment by business executives that understanding cultural differences is absolutely essential for doing business abroad. Unfortunately, this same literature reports that surveys of major corporations indicate that relatively few offer this type of preparation for their people. According to one such survey by the consulting firm of Moran, Stahl and Boyer, only 12 percent of the respondents of 51 multinational U.S. corporations indicated that they offered seminars and workshops on cross-cultural differences and doing business abroad (Callahan 1989).
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Similarly, the preparation that is being provided appears to be inadequate, resulting in high costs to companies and frustration for employees. According to one source, in a study of expatriates who were forced to return to the United States before completing their assignment, the failure rate (as measured by coming home before the end of tour in-country) ranged from 20 percent to 50 percent, costing the company between $55,000 and $150,000 per person. This translates into approximately $2 billion per year in costs for U.S. corporations (McEnery and DesHarnais 1990).
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Training alone will not solve the problem. Many conditions influence the success of doing business abroad; the individual is surveys one variable in the equation. It is perhaps the most critical factor, however, for we know that inadequate attention is being given to this important aspect of executive development.
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Other factors that influence success abroad include the nature, scope, and location of the project. Of particular note is the location, as studies have shown that although 18 percent of those sent to London will fail, this increases to 36 percent in Tokyo and 68 percent in Saudi Arabia. Such statistics point to a need for companies to carefully consider the unique nature of differing cultures and direct their executive preparation initiatives accordingly.
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This article examines many cross-cultural differences among 25 or more countries in which there is a practice or behavior dissimilar to that in the United States. They rank among the many complex subjects that must be considered by corporations when designing or contracting training for cultural awareness. Among the cultural elements that will be examined are language and communications, aesthetics, time orientation, social institutions, religion, personal achievement, personal space, social behavior, and intercultural socialization.
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Cultures include all types of learning and behavior. They are learned, they vary, and they influence the manner in which people behave.
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Communications
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Of all the cultural elements that an international traveler must study, the language of the host country is among the most difficult to manage. Although it is beneficial for individuals to know the language, one also needs the competency to recognize idiomatic interpretations, which are quite different from those found in the English dictionary. All cultures have verbal and nonverbal communication systems, and each country's vocabulary reflects its primary value and composition. Words spoken by an American may not have the same meaning when translated into another language.
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When visiting a country in which English is not spoken, executives often use an interpreter to translate for them. Yet numerous gestures, facial expressions, and motions send different signals, and an interpreter might not be capable of articulating the full intention of the message. For example, Americans are often direct in their conversations, expecting the truth with no hint of deception. At the same time, Americans also tend to be uncomfortable with silent moments. People in some other countries, though, may prefer not to be direct and may shift their eyes away from the American. To them this is a sign of respect. To the American, however, it may be seen as a gesture suggesting withholding of information. And in some cultures silence is appreciated, giving discussants or negotiators time to think and evaluate the situation.
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One of the most damaging demands that can be made of an Asian is "Give me a yes or no answer." Although an American would view this as a mild form of confrontation and would expect to get a "yes" or "no" response, Asians rarely say no. This is because of their reluctance to displease another with a negative answer and also to save them the embarrassment of having to admit an inability. There is no word for "no" in Thailand. Similarly, the French often say "no" when they may actually mean "maybe."
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In some countries, if a question is asked, the visitor may be told whatever the native thinks the visitor wants to hear. If you ask for directions in Mexico, Lebanon, or Japan, and the natives don't really know the answer, they may still give you one simply to make you happy. In countries such as Paraguay or Pakistan, if directions are requested, regardless of the distance, the answer is likely to be "not far."
In America, a person who is reluctant to maintain eye contact is called shifty-eyed and arouses suspicion. But in some countries an attempt to maintain eye contact may be perceived as a sign of aggression. Accordingly, in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and other Asian countries, maintaining eye contact is not an acceptable behavior. On the other hand, in Saudi Arabia, eye contact and gestures of openness are important and could facilitate communications.
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Most people who transact business abroad may not be proficient in the spoken language of the host country. However, nonverbal communications, such as signs, gestures, and body cues, can be learned in a short period. The value of knowing what to do and what to avoid should not be underestimated, so that one will not transmit unintended messages. According to several business executives interviewed, these issues are of much greater importance to closing the deal than actually knowing how to speak the native language.
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One executive reported that the English language is used in many regions of the world as the accepted form of business communication. In some countries such as the Philippines, you would be expected to use English or risk being considered of a lower class. Even though they risk isolation from the rest of the world, Filipinos no longer require English as a second language for their young, leaving only the upper class the ability to learn it in private schools or from tutors. Power brokers in most of the developing countries recognize the importance of understanding English. In Singapore, for example, it is not unusual to hear the language spoken in the home just for the purpose of further developing the skills of young people.
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In the same respect, such regions as the Middle East may prefer that visiting business people not attempt to use the native language, unless they have a high degree of proficiency. According to one source, it is quite common for Arab businessmen to speak English, because their formal education is likely to have come from Western universities. However, it is also recommended that if a company is intending to do a significant degree of business in the Middle East, its employees should be trained in Arabic. Dialects and accents aside, its written form dominates the region.
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Aesthetics
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It is important for companies to evaluate in depth such aesthetic factors as product and package design, color, brand name, and symbols. For instance, some conventional brand names that communicate positive messages in America have a totally different meaning in another country, which may substantially stigmatize corporate image and marketing effectiveness.
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When General Motors (GM) introduced its Chevy Nova into the Spanish market, it failed to first investigate whether the product name had an adverse meaning. GM subsequently learned that Nova ("no va") in Spanish means "It won't go." Other American product names, impart a negative message when literally translated into another language.
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Symbols also are important aesthetic factors that could have an adverse meaning in a different country. For example, the Wise Corporation would have to change or modify its trademark if it decided to test-market potato chips in India. The owl, which is the Wise trademark, is a symbol of bad luck in India even though in America it is associated with intelligence.
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This further exemplifies the importance of pre-travel inquiries to avoid making errors that will hamper one's ability to conduct business abroad effectively. They also illustrate the cross-cultural quagmires that can be avoided when a firm leaves little to chance in choosing appropriate and inappropriate behavior or practices.
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Time Orientation
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Americans are clock watchers. We live by schedules and deadlines and thrive on being prompt for meetings and "efficient" in conducting business. In many parts of the world people arrive late for appointments, and business is preceded by hours of social rapport. In such places, people in a rush are occasionally thought to be arrogant and untrustworthy.
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In the United States, a high value is placed on time. If someone waited outside an office for half an hour or so beyond the appointed time, it would be seen as a signal of his or her lack of importance. In the Middle East, a business person may keep a visitor waiting for a long time. But once the host begins the meeting, it may last as long as required to conduct the business at hand. Of course, others with later appointments on the same day also must wait their turn.
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Americans are also deadline-oriented. If a deadline is mentioned to an Arab, however, it is like waving a red flag in front of a bull. Forcing the Arab to make a quick decision may very well cost you the deal. What appears to be inefficiency and muddling on the part of Arab businessmen may be a signal of displeasure with the way things are going. Experienced negotiators recommend slowing down and looking for signals that suggest that negotiations are not going well.
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Western cultures view time as a resource that is not to be wasted. The efficient use of time is emphasized in such phrases as "Time is money" and "Time is the enemy." In contrast, Eastern cultures view time as unlimited and unending. In America, meetings sometimes begin with phrases such as "Let's get started" and "Let's dispense with the preliminaries." In Japan, casual conversation precedes business matters, because the Japanese are generally more interested than Americans in getting to know the people involved in the transaction.
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Furthermore, it is important to the Japanese that consensus be reached and any misunderstandings be cleared up before proceeding on any problems that may surface in negotiations. The Japanese process of consultation (ring-seido) could bring to the surface problems not appreciated or known to Americans. This will require further consultations to remove obstacles.
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Many cultures value relationships. Europeans and Asians place a high regard on long-term relationships rather than on short-term gains, which runs counter to what most Americans perceive. Excessive emphasis on speed and time may give the impression that the transaction is more important than the person. This is a fundamental error in professional judgment in many regions of the world.
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Social Institutions
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Social institutions--business, political, family, or class related--influence the behavior of people. In some countries, for example, the family is the most important social group. So social structures must be examined to understand the culture, because family relationships sometimes influence the work environment and employment practices.
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In Latin America and the Arab world, a manager who gives special treatment to a relative is considered to be fulfilling an obligation. From the Latin point of view, it only makes sense to hire someone you can trust. In the United States, however, it is considered favoritism and nepotism. In India there is a fair amount of nepotism. But there too it is consistent with the norms of the culture. By knowing the importance of family relationships in the workplace and in business transactions, embarrassing questions about nepotism can be avoided.
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According to the director of sales in the Mideast for a U.S.-based communications company, nepotism is commonplace in this region. He reports that not only are you forced to deal with "large groups of families," but these families often represent the country's aristocracy. Such individuals typically hold high positions in the local government and can rather easily skew a deal in one direction or another. As an outsider, a visiting business executive must learn not only to tolerate but also to appreciate the purpose of these relationships. It is not for us to judge the virtue of these conditions, concludes the sales director, but to adapt and work within the local norms.
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Americans should also be cautious of being judgmental or intrusive in the local political structure. Particularly in South America, where each country functions as a distinctive nation-state, it is a mistake to presume that a single political ideology prevails. Rather, these countries have foregone the benefits of functioning as a single market in favor of autonomous units. This results in separate infrastructures of military, customs, currencies, and legal systems.
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Religion
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Religion is of utmost importance in many countries. In America, substantial effort is made to keep government and church matters separate. Nevertheless, there remains a healthy respect for individual religious differences. In some countries, such as Lebanon and Iran, religion may be the very foundation of the government and a dominant factor in business, political, and educational decisions.
In the United States, employers are required by federal law to "reasonably accommodate" individual religious beliefs that conflict with job demands. There may be quite a number of them, however, because multiple nationalities, ethnic groups, and religions are represented in the diverse U.S. work force. In other countries, there may be fewer religions, but the dominant religion must be respected in professional, supervisory, managerial, and other business behavior. When abroad, any effort to compare religions should be avoided.
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When supervising a work group in some countries, an attempt to modify a policy, behavior, or process that is grounded in religion would not only draw the attention of national corporate officials but that of government officials as well. In Saudi Arabia, for example, during the month of Ramadan, Moslems fast from sunrise to sunset. As a consequence, worker production drops. Many Moslems rise earlier in the morning to eat before sunrise and may eat what they perceive to be enough to last until sunset. This affects their strength and stamina during the work day. An effort by management to maintain normal productivity levels will likely be rejected, so managers must learn to be sensitive to this custom as well as to others like it.
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Eating pork is forbidden by law in Islam and Judaism. So if hot dogs are an American's favorite lunch, all-beef hot dogs would have to be substituted for pork. The pork restriction exists in Israel as well as in Islamic countries in the Middle East, such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran, and Southeast Asia, such as Indonesia and Malaysia.
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Islamic religion also frowns upon excessive profit, which is considered a form of exploitation. This is an important consideration in pricing products and services.
The role of women is also different in Islamic countries. They are, among other things, required to dress in such a way that their arms, legs, torso, and faces are concealed. An American female would be expected to honor this dress code while in the host country.
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Islamic worshippers pray facing the holy city of Mecca five times each day. Visiting Westerners must be aware of this religious ritual. In Saudi Arabia and Iran, it is not unusual for managers and workers to place carpets on the floor and kneel to pray several times during the day. Although Sunday is a day of rest for most countries in the world, there are several countries in which the rest day is not Sunday.
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Countries That Have Official Rest Days Other Than Sunday - Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya,
On Friday - Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia, United, Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic, Yemen Democratic Republic
On Saturday - Israel
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Personal Achievement
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For the most part, Americans strive to achieve, be competitive, land the best job, earn the most money, and be promoted. They consider their position in the organization for which they work as an indication of status. We are an individualistic society and have built a nation based on our tenacity to get things done in as little time as possible and with minimal disruption.
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By contrast, Hindu teachings suggest that acquisition and achievement are not to be sought, because they are the major courses of suffering in one's daily life. In Japan, positions are not arranged in a status hierarchy, and promotions are determined based on seniority rather than merit, although there is some evidence of movement from seniority-based rewards. Japanese workers are encouraged to work as teams. Cooperation is an art in Asian countries. It is said in Japan that "the nail that sticks out will be pounded down" (Adler 1986). This illustrates that individual competitiveness is less desirable than teamwork and team spirit.
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Even the former Soviet Union encouraged teamwork. If a work group failed to meet production goals, no one was rewarded. But if a group exceeded its quota, everyone would benefit. Although cash rewards are often given to high achievers in America, a Japanese, Chinese, or Yugoslav would be humiliated to receive one.
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A great deal has been written in U.S. management literature over the past 10 to 15 years on teamwork and a participatory environment of decision making. The currently popular Total Quality Management movement would suggest that more U.S. companies are adopting this ideology. However, some researchers say that the U.S. cultural orientation on this subject is too embedded for us to adapt the normative working relationships of, say, the Japanese. On this comparison, one individual stated, "Harmony has long been important in Japan and is used as a building block to develop consensus in decision-making." In addition, whereas the individual is still the primary unit in American society and the educational system, group welfare prevails in Japan (Fram 1985).
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Personal Space
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Different cultures have varying rules on personal space and touching. Americans sometimes touch others on the hand or arm or shoulder when talking. In some cultures, such behavior may not be appropriate, especially with the left hand when in the Middle East.
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The distance between individuals when talking is another issue that must be known and respected. Although one may not be able to define the exact distance if asked, most individuals have a specific amount of space that they maintain between themselves and others when conversing. Americans are typically made uncomfortable by the close conversation distance of Arabs and Africans. In the same respect, Arabs and Africans may feel rejected by the lengthy personal distance Americans maintain.
Indonesians operate with less empty space than Americans require, and some touching is permissible. However, an Indonesian should not be patted on the head, and a person of the opposite sex should never be touched. It is important to know the rules for personal touching and space of the culture in which a visit is planned. In some cases, personal touching can be viewed as an extreme act; in addition to violating the norms of a culture, it may even be viewed as a criminal offense.
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Social Behavior
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There are a number of social behaviors and comments that have different meanings in other cultures. For example, Americans generally consider it impolite to mound food on a plate, make noises when eating, and belch. However, some Chinese feel it is polite to take a portion of every food served and consider it evidence of satisfaction to belch.
Other social behaviors, if not known, will place the American international traveler at a disadvantage. For example, in Saudi Arabia, it is an insult to question a host about the health of his spouse, show the soles of one's shoes, or touch or deliver objects with the left hand.
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In Korea, both hands should be used when passing objects to one another, and it would be considered impolite to discuss politics, communism, or Japan. Also in Korea, formal introductions are very important. Although in America it might be acceptable to initiate a visit to a corporate or government office to meet an official, in Korea it is not considered in good taste. In both Japan and Korea, ranks and titles are expected to be used in addressing hosts. In the United States, there is not a clear rule on this behavior, except in select fields such as the armed forces or medicine. In Indonesia, it is considered rude to point at another person with a finger. However, one may point with the thumb or gesture with the chin.
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When greeting someone, it is appropriate in most countries, as in the United States, to shake hands. In some countries the greeting includes a handshake and more. In Japan, a handshake may be followed by a bow, going as low and lasting as long as that of the senior person. In Brazil, Korea, Indonesia, China, and Taiwan, a slight bow is also appropriate.
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In some countries, the greeting involves more contact. For instance, in Venezuela, close friends greet each other with a full embrace and a hearty pat on the back; in Indonesia, a social kiss is in vogue, and a touching of first the right then the left cheek as one shakes hands. In Malaysia, close friends grasp with both hands; and in South Africa, blacks shake hands, followed by a clench of each other's thumbs, and another handshake.
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In most countries, addressing someone as Mr., Mrs., Miss, or Ms. is acceptable, but this is certainly not universal. Monsieur, Madame, and Mademoiselle are preferred in France, Belgium, and Luxembourg, while señor, señora, and senorita are the norm in Spain and Mexico.
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It is sometimes the case that conversation occurs as greetings are exchanged. In Sweden, the greeting is "goddag"; in the Netherlands, it is "pleased to meet you"; in the United Kingdom it's "how do you do"; and in Israel it is "shalom." Other greetings vary by country.
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In many countries, men do not shake hands with a woman unless she extends her hand first. In India, women, or a man and a woman, greet each other by placing the palms of their hands together and bowing slightly; and in Mexico simply by a slight bow. In some countries, such as India, it is not advisable for men to touch or talk alone with a woman.
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Although many of the social behaviors mentioned vary slightly from the American norm, negative judgments should not be made about them. When trying to explain what took so long in closing a deal, home office executives need to understand that drinking tea, socializing, and relationship building are important components in accomplishing corporate international goals.
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Intercultural Socialization
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In addition to knowing specific courtesies, personal space, language and communication, and social behavioral differences, there are numerous intercultural socialization behaviors that an international business traveler should learn. Knowing a culture means knowing the habits, actions, and reasons behind the behaviors.
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Americans often make assumptions about what is culturally proper or incorrect based on their own experiences. For example, in the United States the bathtub and toilet are likely to be in the same room. Americans assume this is the world norm. Some cultures, however, such as that of the Japanese, consider it unhygienic. Other cultures think it unhygienic even to sit on a toilet seat.
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It is not always necessary for an international business traveler to understand the "whys" of a culture, but it is important to accept them and to abide by them while on foreign soil. However, if the time is available, becoming thoroughly aware of the culture in which you will be visiting or working will pay excellent dividends.
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Pre-Travel Planning and Training
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Becoming internationally adept and culturally aware should be a goal of any professional who aspires to do business abroad. This generally means a conscious effort in training and professional development by organizations. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) provides an excellent model. CIDA hosts a five day pre-departure briefing for Canadians that includes travel information, introduction to the geographical area of the host country, and presentations by a host national or a returnee. Cross-cultural communication, information for family members, and information on skills transfer are also included.
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There are numerous sources from which to obtain the training necessary for travel abroad. They range from individual consultants and established pre-departure corporations to state and federal offices that center on foreign trade or other foreign relations matters. Universities with international business centers are excellent sources as well.
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Many elements of culture that we believe make America such a pleasant place in which to live and work are not the norm in other countries. But when an American travels abroad on behalf of his or her corporation, the more that is known about potential business partners and their culture, the less the risk of engaging in offensive and insulting behavior. This increases the probability of achieving success rather than missing an opportunity simply because of arrogance or ignorance.
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References
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Nancy J. Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior (Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Co., 1991).
Harry Brown and Rosemary Thomas, Brits Abroad (London: Express Books, 1981).
Madelyn R. Callahan, "Preparing the New Global Manager," Training and Development Journal, March 1989, pp. 28-32.
Lennie Copeland, "Making Costs in International Travel," Personal Administrator, July 1984, pp. 47-51.
Lennie Copeland and Lewis Griggs, Going International (New York: Random House, 1985).
Lennie Copeland and Lewis Griggs, "Getting the Best from Foreign Employees," Management Review, June 1986, pp. 19-26.
Eugene Fram, "Consensus on Campus: Lessons for University Decision Making in Japan," Speaking of Japan, April 1985, pp. 20-26.
Shari Gaudron, "Surviving Cross-Cultural Shock," Industry Week, July 6, 1992, pp. 35-37.
Allen Hixon, "Why Corporations Make Haphazard Overseas Staffing Decisions," Personnel Administrator, March 1986, pp. 91-93.
John Ivancevich, James Donnelly, Jr., and James Gibson, Management (Boston: Irwin, 1989).
Gavin Kennedy, Doing Business Abroad (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985).
Rose Knotts, "Cross-Cultural Management: Transformations and Adaptations," Business Horizons, January-February 1989, pp. 29-33.
Jean McEnery and Gaston DesHarnais, "Culture Shock," Training and Development Journal, April 1990, pp. 43-47.
Christopher North, International Business, 2d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1985).
Arvind V. Phatak, International Dimensions of Management (Boston: Kent Publishing Co., 1983).
Janet Stern Solomon, "Employee Relations Soviet Style," Personnel Administrator, October 1985, pp. 79-86.
H.L. Wills, "Selection for Employment in Developing Countries," Personnel Administrators, July 1984, pp. 53-58.
Charles F. Valentine, "Blunders Abroad," Nation's Business, March 1989, pp. 54-56.
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FOREIGN ETIQUETTE TIPS
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The following advice by Sue Fox, author of Business Etiquette for Dummies, may help business travelers avoid an embarrassing gaffe abroad.
Argentina
It is rude to ask people what they do for a living. Wait until they offer the information.
Bahrain
Never show signs of impatience, because it is considered an insult. If tea is offered, always accept.
Cambodia
Never touch or pass something over the head of a Cambodian, because the head is considered sacred.
China
As in most Asian cultures, avoid waving or pointing chopsticks, putting them vertically in a rice bowl or tapping them on the bowl. These actions are considered extremely rude.
Dominican Republic
When speaking to someone, failure to maintain good eye contact may be interpreted as losing interest in the conversation.
France
Always remain calm, polite and courteous during business meetings. Never appear overly friendly, because this could be construed as suspicious. Never ask personal questions.
Greece
If you need to signal a taxi, holding up five fingers is considered an offensive gesture if the palm faces outward. Face your palm inward with closed fingers.
Egypt
Showing the sole of your foot or crossing your legs when sitting is an insult. Never use the thumbs-up sign, because it is considered an obscene gesture.
India
Avoid giving gifts made from leather, because many Hindus are vegetarian and consider cows sacred. Keep this in mind when taking Indian clients to restaurants. Don't wink, because it is seen as a sexual gesture.
Japan
Never write on a business card or shove the card into your back pocket when you are with the giver. This is considered disrespectful. Hold the card with both hands and read it carefully. It's considered polite to make frequent apologies in general conversation.
Malaysia
If you receive an invitation from a business associate from Malaysia, always respond in writing. Avoid using your left hand because it is considered unclean.
Mexico
If visiting a business associate's home, do not bring up business unless the associate does.
Philippines
Never refer to a female hosting an event as the "hostess," which translates to prostitute.
Singapore
If you plan to give a gift, always give it to the company. A gift to one person is considered a bribe.
Spain
Always request your check when dining out in Spain. It is considered rude for wait staff to bring your bill beforehand.
Vietnam
Shake hands only with someone of the same sex who initiates it. Physical contact between men and women in public is frowned upon.
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Vocabulary
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Awareness: noun [U] knowledgement that something exists, or having knowledge or experience of a particular thing
Abroad: (FOREIGN PLACE) adjective [after verb], adverb in or to a foreign country or countries
Foreign: adjective belonging or connected to a country which is not your own
Committed: adjective loyal and willing to give your time and energy to something that you believe in
Transact: verb [T] FORMAL to do and complete a business activity
Behavior(s): noun [U] Someone's behavior is how they act in a particular way, or acting in a way which has society's approval
Perceived: Past tense of perceive - verb [T] to see something or someone, or to become aware of something that is obvious
Jeopardize: verb [T] to put something such as a plan or system in danger of being harmed or damaged
Counterparts: noun [C] a person or thing which has the same purpose as another one in a different place or organization
Achieve: verb [T] to succeed in finishing something or reaching an aim, especially after a lot of work or effort
have a long way to go: expression - In American English ways is often used as an equivalent of way in phrases such as a long ways to go. The usage is acceptable but is usually considered informal
to deal: verb [I or T] dealt, dealt - to do business
survey(s): noun [C] an examination of opinions, behavior, etc., made by asking people questions
scope: noun [U] the range of a subject covered by a book, programme, discussion, class, etc
rank: noun [C or U] a position in an organization, such as the army, showing the importance of the person having it
aesthetics: aesthetic, US also esthetic adjective relating to the enjoyment or study of beauty
achievement: noun [C or U] something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing
host: noun [C] (female hostess) someone who has guests
hint: noun [C] a piece of advice which helps you to do something
though: conjunction despite the fact that
withholding: Present Continuous Tense of Withhold - verb [T] withheld, withheld to refuse to give something or to keep back something
damaging: adjective causing harm
embarrassment: noun [C or U] when you feel embarrassed, or something that makes you feel embarrassed – derived from the verb embarrass: verb [T] to cause someone to feel anxious or uncomfortable
regardless: adverb despite; not being affected by something
proficient: adjective skilled and experienced
cues: noun [C] a signal for someone to do something
aside: adverb on or to one side
in depth: adjective [before noun] done carefully and in great detail, or discovering the real reasons which cause something
whether: conjunction (used especially in reporting questions and expressing doubts) if, or not
impart: verb [T] FORMAL to communicate information to someone
adverse: adjective [before noun] having a negative or harmful effect on something
hamper: verb [T] to prevent someone doing something easily
quagmires: noun [C] a difficult and dangerous situation
deadlines: noun [C] a time or day by which something must be done
thrive: verb [I] thrived or US ALSO throve, thrived or US ALSO thriven to grow, develop or be successful
rapport: noun [S or U]a good understanding of someone and an ability to communicate well with them
in a rush: Noun - General haste or busyness
untrustworthy: adjective – something or someone that you can’t trust
lack: Intransitive Verb – to be short or have need of something
muddling: intransitive verb – to think or act in a confused, aimless way
emphasized: verb [T] (UK USUALLY -ise) to show or state that something is particularly important or worth giving attention to
unending: adjective SLIGHTLY FORMAL describes activities or events, especially unpleasant ones, when they seem to continue for ever
matters: noun [C] a situation or subject which is being dealt with or considered
Furthermore: adverb FORMAL in addition; more importantly
Judgment: noun [U] the ability to form valuable opinions and make good decisions
Environment: noun [C] the conditions that you live or work in and the way that they influence how you feel or how effectively you can work
Skew: adjective [after verb] not straight
Foregone: adjective – previous, past
Utmost: adjective [before noun] (FORMAL uttermost) used to emphasize how important or serious something is
Nevertheless: adverb (SLIGHTLY FORMAL nonetheless) despite what has just been said or referred to
Belief(s): noun [C or S or U]the feeling of certainty that something exists or is true
draw the attention: same as: to attract the attention
fast: Irregular verb – not to eat
sunrise: noun [U] (US INFORMAL ALSO sun-up) the time in the morning when the sun starts to rise in the sky
sunset: noun [U] the time in the evening when you last see the sun in the sky
frowns: noun – when you bring your eyebrows together so that there are lines on your face above your eyes to show that you are annoyed or worried
worshippers: noun [C] someone who worships and performs religious ceremonies to a particular god or object
kneel: verb [I] knelt or kneeled, knelt or kneeled to go down into, or stay in, a position where one or both knees are on the ground
be sought: Transitive Verb - Middle English besechen, from be- + sechen to seek - Date: 12th century transitive verb 1 : to beg for urgently or anxiously 2 : to request earnestly : implore
embedded: embedded, US ALSO imbedded adjective If an emotion, attitude, etc. is embedded in someone or something, it is a very strong or important part of them
welfare: noun [U]physical and mental health and happiness, especially of a person
mound: noun [C] a large pile of something
belch: verb [I or T] to allow air from the stomach to come out noisily through the mouth
bow: verb [I or T] to bend your head or body forward, especially as a way of showing someone respect or expressing thanks to people who have watched you perform
embrace: verb [I or T] LITERARY to hold someone tightly with both arms to express love, liking or sympathy, or when greeting or leaving someone
accomplishing: verb [T] to finish something successfully or to achieve something
abide: verb [I usually + adverb or preposition] OLD USE to live or stay somewhere
thoroughly: adverb – thorough: complete, very great, very much
on behalf: noun – interest, benefit; also : support, defense — on behalf of or in behalf of : in the interest of ; also : as a representative of usage A body of opinion favors in with the “interest, benefit” sense of behalf and on with the “support, defense” sense. This distinction has been observed by some writers but overall has never had a sound basis in actual usage. In current British use, on behalf (of) has replaced in behalf (of); both are still used in American English, but the distinction is frequently not observed.
Overly: adverb (also over) too; very
wink: verb [I] to close one eye briefly as a way of greeting someone or showing friendliness, affection, sexual attraction etc., or of showing that you are not serious about something you have said

2 comentários:

jeeny disse...

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jeeny disse...

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